Brock Turner vis a vis Leland Stanford: A Tradition of Western Colonization
Brock Turner, his numerous letters of parental and social support, and the details of his rape that continue to surface are sickening reminders of a tradition of a colonizing white male superiority complex that promotes racism and the collusion between government, industry and white men that includes the founder of Stanford University, himself: Leland Stanford. As a star athlete for a university team whose mascot was formerly “the Indian,” Brock Turner and his court case symbolically reminds us on many levels that the exertion of physical strength or its evil twin–brute force–over marginal people’s bodies, whether they are women, natives, or any other variant, amounts to the destructive colonization of minds and bodies.
An excellent compilation of the various permutations of Leland Stanford’s endorsement and involvement in Western expansion via the extermination of hundreds of thousands of Native Americans has been compiled here.
Leland Stanford’s contribution to the rape, pillage and extermination policy of California is probably more extensive than most people would like to assume. Notably, we can recall that Leland Stanford arrived to California during the Gold Rush. The native population in 1840 was about 400,000 and just 60 years later, it was just 16,000. What led to such a rapid decline? Several factors:
- The mainstream public support in the media, government and legal system for extermination as the best “solution” to the tensions between races. Stanford, who became governor of California in 1861 and later served in the senate for 8 years was complicit in this support.
- The vast influx of newcomers from the east was accelerated by the completion of the Transcontinental Railroad in 1969. Stanford was one of the four primary tycoons of the railroad and together they managed to create a monopoly by dominating the shipping industry of California as well. Their monopolizing business practices led to an economic “bust” or recession following the boom of the gold rush.
- Natives could be purchased and sold as slaves and they were also forced to live on reservations.
One particularly significant historic incident that serves as a reminder of the colonizing tradition of brutality in the West and the moral corruption that promotes physical violence towards women is the Wiyot Massacre of 1860 which occurred on February 26th.
The Wiyots, a native tribe of about 2000 people lived near Humboldt California. A day before the massacre, the tribe had gathered for their annual World Renewal Ceremony, a thousand years old tradition for the tribe in which they asked the creator’s blessing for the people and land in the coming year. This ceremony had begun just three days after the purchase of the island by German engineer Robert Gunther. A militia group of roughly 5 men in the mining community decided to raid the island and using their mining tools, bash in the skulls of the natives. They chose this method to avoid the sound. When the island was cleared of the some 60-80 bodies, it was discovered that only women, children and the elderly had been murdered because the men had gone to gather supplies for the ceremony. Just one surviving baby remained.
Bret Harte, who would later become a member of the literati of the west and a founding member of the Bohemian Club, was temporarily serving as editor to the local newspaper and condemned the incident. He then received death threats from the anonymous mob of attackers. He left the town for San Francisco thereafter. Incidentally one of his most famous stories, “The Luck of Roaring Camp,” surrounds the story of a baby found by a pack of anti-feminist miners who decide to attempt to raise the baby in the purposeful absence of women. A grand jury was called following the massacre, but no one was indicted, although the male attackers were known as the “Humboldt Volunteers, second brigade.” The newspapers in the region typically condoned such actions as necessary for the expansionist land acquisition by the United States government.
So, how does this incident relate to Brock Turner’s rape? Like this mob, Brock Turner attacked a woman while she was asleep. Furthermore, the failure of law enforcement to adequately address the seriousness of the crime, reveals an apologetic tendency in our justice system. The mob-mentality of the attack on the natives aligns with Brock’s case since he is cited for sending photographs of the body of his female victim to a group of his friends. Lastly, the letters of apology and defense of Brock by his family members and friends parallel the newspapers which denied expressions of remorse over the event. The only difference in this case, is there is huge public outcry against Brock Turner and the complicit responses of his judge and his family members. Whereas Bret Harte had to turn away from his stance of public resistance, the public sphere is admirably speaking up. In my own attempt to speak out, I wish to revise our emotional use of the word “monster” to the more appropriate description of Brock Turner as a “colonizer” as a means to target the root of such aggression in society.
Furthermore, like Leland Stanford was in his time, Brock Turner is a member of the present-day colonizing class as a student of investment banking, known for highly risky speculative business practices worldwide. Global banking has contributed to numerous aggressive policies that promote the global acquisition of resources by colonizing multinational corporations. Brock Turner’s rape is a microcosm of the vast system of violence towards lands and marginalized peoples. A symbolic detail that is reminiscent of this is the fact that bits of earth and soil had lodged inside the victim’s vagina. Brock Turner has not only defiled his victim’s body, but the land of his own campus, while contributing to a history of such actions.